cartography definition ap world history

cartography definition ap world history

[24]:24 Periodos Ges was divided into two books, "Europe" and "Asia", with the latter including Libya, the name of which was an ancient term for all of the known Africa. The first maps were produced manually, with brushes and parchment; so they varied in quality and were limited in distribution. In Europe, Jerusalem for example would have been shown at the center of the planet and the east would have been placed at the top (this is for religious reasons as the east was said to be closer to God - Jerusalem being east of most European powers such as Spain, France and England) (3). Throughout the rest of the 1500s and into the 1600s and 1700s, further European exploration resulted in the creation of maps showing various parts of the world that had not been mapped before. [41]:90 Before this find, the earliest extant maps that were known came from the Mawangdui Han tomb excavation in 1973, which found three maps on silk dated to the 2nd century BC in the early Han Dynasty. [68], The Albers equal-area conic projection features no distortion along standard parallels. In the mid-1500s, Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish cartographer, invented the Mercator map projection. On the reverse, a copy of a more ancient map uses grid coordinates in a scale of 1:1,500,000 and shows the coastline of China with great accuracy. 2. pp 1-5, "Cartography and Visualization Part I: Types of Maps", "3.1 The Cartographic Process | GEOG 160: Mapping our Changing World", "Using Text on Maps: Typography in Cartography", Concise Bibliography of the History of Cartography, Geographic data and information organizations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cartography&oldid=986375486, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This information was vital to far more than mapping too; by plotting the heavens, leaders could organize society around the growing seasons. David Rumsey Historical Map Collection is nowadays a worldwide known initiative. The Majorcan school is contrasted with the contemporary Italian cartography school. Geographic Information System (GIS): Using Maps & Locations to Make Decisions, Map Projections: Mercator, Gnomonic & Conic, Contemporary Approaches in Geography: Area, Spatial, Locational & Geographic Systems Analysis, What is a Map Scale? "There was a 'not cartography' land where lurked an army of inaccurate, heretical, subjective, valuative, and ideologically distorted images. Amanda Briney is a professional geographer. These are considered some of the world’s oldest economic maps. As units of measurements, this map used "days of sailing" on the sea and "days of marching" on dry land. See also digital raster graphic and History of web mapping. The purpose may be as wide as describing the location of geographic features to be used in a variety of ways, such as a topographic map, or as narrow as convincing someone of a prescribed course of action. Please update this to reflect recent events or newly available information. By combining the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean, Europe, and the Far East (which he learned through contemporary accounts from Arab merchants and explorers) with the information he inherited from the classical geographers, he was able to write detailed descriptions of a multitude of countries. He depicted the boundary of Europe as the line from the Pillars of Hercules through the Bosphorus and the area between the Caspian Sea and the Indus River. Two agencies were established to provide more detailed, large-scale mapping. M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. Snell's methods were taken up by Jean Picard who in 1669–70 surveyed one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using a chain of thirteen triangles stretching north from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens. [39], Before 1749, maps of the African continent had African kingdoms drawn with assumed or contrived boundaries, with unknown or unexplored areas having drawings of animals, imaginary physical geographic features, and descriptive texts. Apparently, it took them three years, but they certainly did prove his idea. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. 112–130. [41]:91 After two years of slow-drying techniques, the maps were fully restored. The Allied Powers were not immune to this either, Frank Capra himself compiled a map for the US public to influence the notion that Nazi Germany and her allies were a threat to the US (15). Cartography definition, the production of maps, including construction of projections, design, compilation, drafting, and reproduction. Ptolemy mentions several revisions of Marinus's geographical work, which is often dated to AD 114 although this is uncertain. Furthermore, the coast of the Black Sea was only known through myths and legends that circulated during his time. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. This is the concern of, Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. The Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation was the first known voyage around the world in human history. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This example can be seen in the 4th chapter of the Huainanzi (Book of the Master of Huainan), compiled under the editorship of Prince Liu An in 139 BC during the Han Dynasty (202 BC–202 AD). Like any other source of official information, they can be used to tell us what we need to know, and for others to tell us what they want us to know. Also due to the superior typography the Atlas Maior by Blaeu soon became a status symbol for rich citizens. Herodotus rejected the prevailing view of most 5th-century BC maps that the earth is a circular plate surrounded by Ocean. [29] His work, including On the Measurement of the Earth and Geographica, has only survived in the writings of later philosophers such as Cleomedes and Strabo. 31–85. Landing at the Pacific coast port of Acapulco in 1803, Humboldt did not leave the port area for Mexico City until he produced a map of the port; when leaving he drew a map of the east coast port of Veracruz, as well as a map of the central plateau of Mexico. The oldest known "map" currently known... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Another motive for deliberate errors is cartographic "vandalism": a mapmaker wishing to leave his or her mark on the work. Initiatives such as Euratlas History Maps (which covers the whole of Europe from the year 1 AD to the present), Centennia Historical Atlas (which covers Europe from the year 1000AD to the present), Geacron, and many others who work in what is called historical cartography. It stands on its own as raw data, but it can also tell you much about the people who compiled the map (1). Fracking: What Is It and How Will It Affect You? How was it drawn? Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. [44]:543 Arguably the greatest geographer and cartographer of the Tang period was Jia Dan (730–805), whom Emperor Dezong of Tang entrusted in 785 to complete a map of China with her recently former inland colonies of Central Asia, the massive and detailed work completed in 801, called the Hai Nei Hua Yi Tu (Map of both Chinese and Barbarian Peoples within the (Four) Seas). In his work he describes the earth as an irregular shape with oceans surrounding only Asia and Africa. The most accurate maps of all time are now available with just a few clicks on the internet. The almost 2,000 copperplates of Janssonius and Blaeu found their way to other publishers. The first use of color in map making cannot be narrowed down to one reason. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. That and the topology of station order and interchanges between train lines are all that is left of the geographic space. The Tang Dynasty (618–907) also had its fair share of cartographers, including the works of Xu Jingzong in 658, Wang Mingyuan in 661, and Wang Zhongsi in 747. [50] Shen also created a three-dimensional raised-relief map using sawdust, wood, beeswax, and wheat paste, while representing the topography and specific locations of a frontier region to the imperial court. Master's Degrees are typically required these days, especially if the individual wants to enter into a specialist area, and post-graduate students will be expected to have some experience with GIS software. By this construction, courses of constant bearing are conveniently represented as straight lines for navigation. That this was Mercator's intention is clear from the title: Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata which translates as "New and more complete representation of the terrestrial globe properly adapted for use in navigation". The way in which the geographical knowledge of the Greeks advanced from the previous assumptions of the Earth's shape was through Herodotus and his conceptual view of the world. - Definition, Facts & Types, Settlement Hierarchy: Definition & Categories, Analyzing Spatial Organization of People, Places & Environments on Earth's Surfaces, Population Change from Aging, Death, and Migration, SAT Subject Test World History: Practice and Study Guide, Praxis Social Studies - Content Knowledge (5081): Study Guide & Practice, Ohio Assessments for Educators - Integrated Social Studies (025): Practice & Study Guide, Prentice Hall World History Connections to Today Volume 1: Online Textbook Help, ILTS Social Science - History (246): Test Practice and Study Guide, Post-Civil War U.S. History: Help and Review, Praxis World & U.S. History - Content Knowledge (5941): Practice & Study Guide, TCI History Alive The Medieval World and Beyond: Online Textbook Help, Biological and Biomedical

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