/URI (http://oogoro.easterndns.com/Ptt-g) "Loch Ness Mist". The ANSP thanked Turner for his "very valuable gift" at their meeting in December 1868, and Turner visited the museum during spring, at a time when Cope was absent. >> Elasmosaurus is one of the most widely recognised plesiosaur names and has become a stereotype for all elasmosaurids. endobj /ColorSpace << In the Late Cretaceous, elasmosaurids grew as large as 11.5–12 m (38–39 ft), such as Styxosaurus, Albertonectes, and Thalassomedon. Several, going by the fossil record, probably looked pretty similar to the reported description of Nessie and other lake monsters. [ 10 0 R 11 0 R 12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R 16 0 R 17 0 R 18 0 R 19 0 R 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R ] , Though Cope had originally recognized Elasmosaurus as a plesiosaur, in an 1869 paper he placed it, with Cimoliasaurus and Crymocetus, in a new order of sauropterygian reptiles. Since its initial assignment to the Elasmosauridae, the relationships of Brancasaurus had been considered well supported, and it was recovered by O'Keefe's 2004 analysis and Franziska Großmann's 2007 analysis. If Nessie exists, there may be more of them, all around the world. (2013) << Many species of Elasmosaurus have been erected over the years but the majority are invalid or have since been referred to new genera. , The neural arches of the neck vertebrae were well fused to the centra, leaving no visible sutures, and the neural canal was narrow in the front vertebrae, becoming more prominently developed in the hind vertebrae, where it was as broad as high, and almost circular.  In spite of their many neck vertebrae, the necks of elasmosaurids were less than half as long as those of the longest-necked sauropod dinosaurs.  Storrs, Arkhangelsky, and Efimov were less specific, labelling it as an indeterminate plesiosaur; this classification was followed by Alexander Averianov and V. K. Popov in 2005. << /Rect [417.120000 449.839999 475.680000 460.399999 ] It was based on Schröder's Pliosaurus (?) The researchers concluded that lateral and vertical arches and shallow S-shaped curves were feasible in contrast to the "swan-like" S-shape neck postures that required more than 360° of vertical flexion. /Type /Annot >> In the most comprehensive phylogeny of plesiosaurs yet, they moved the Leptocleidoidea (renamed the Leptocleidia) back into the Plesiosauroidea as the sister group of the Elasmosauridae; subsequent analyses by Benson and Druckenmiller recovered similar results, and named the Leptocleidoidea–Elasmosauridae grouping as Xenopsaria. endobj However, it is relatively poorly known. /CA 1.0 But the fact is we just don't know.  Their analysis also moved Muraenosaurus to the Cryptoclididae, and Microcleidus and Occitanosaurus to the Plesiosauridae; Benson and Druckenmiller isolated the latter two in the group Microcleididae in 2014, and considered Occitanosaurus a species of Microcleidus.
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